RobertScotland.gif
Dr Robert Scotland BSc PhD
Reader in Systematic Botany

President of the Systematics Association

E-mail:
  robert.scotland@plants.ox.ac.uk

Tel  +44 (0)1865 275059

Last Modified: September 2014

Dr RW Scotland

Research Area

Biodiversity & Plant Systematics

Research Description

Biodiversity
I have recenly focussed on a number of issues relative to the discovery process of new species as informed decisions concerning global taxonomic priorities demand some understanding of how species are discovered. We have shown: that on average there is a lag period of 35 years between collection and description of new species; a very large proportion of type specimens are collected by a few 'big hitter' collectors i.e. 50% of all type specimens habe been collected by 2% of collectors.  We have also explored for flowering plants why the increasing number of authors associated with species discovery do not reflect an increase in taxonomic capacity as has been claimed in recent literature.
 
Foundation Monographs
We have recently  been awarded a  pump priming SynTax grant to produce a Foundation Monograph of Convolvulus in 9 months. It is now submitted for publication.  The overall aim of our Foundation Monograph approach is to accelarate the pace of taxonomic revisions of large probelamtic groups of plants whose taxonomy is poorly known For SynTax grant proposal click here.
In addition, we have just been awarded three years funding (247k) from The Leverhulme Trust for two positions to write a Foundation Monograph of Ipomoea. These grants are held in collaboraton with colleagues at NHM (Mark Carine), Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (David Harris) & Kew (Paul Wilkin). For more details click here.

Monograph of Strobilanthes
My Royal Society Fellowship funded me to write a taxonomic monograph of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae). This work is coming to an end and will be completed soon.

Systematic theory
I have recently focussed on conceptual issues of homology, deep homology and parallelism.

Scotland Group Members

Publications

Since 1995

Williams, B., Mitchell, T., Wood, J.R.I., Harris, D., Scotland, R.W. and M.A. Carine. In press. The process of integrating DNA sequence data in a monographic study of Convolvulus. Taxon.
 
Hay, Angela; Pieper, Bjorn; Cooke, Elizabeth; Mandáková, Terezie; Cartolano, Maria; Tattersall, Alexander; Dello Ioio, Raffaele; McGowan, Simon; Barkoulas, Michalis; Galinha, Carla; Rast, Madlen; Hofhuis, Hugo; Then, Christiane; Plieske, Jörg; Ganal, Martin; Mott, Richard; Martinez-Garcia, Jaime; Carine, Mark; Scotland, Robert; Gan, Xiangchao; Filatov, Dmitry; Lysak, Martin ; Tsiantis, Miltos. Cardamine hirsuta: a versatile genetic system for comparative studies 2014. The Plant Journal 78(1): 1-15.

Kelly, S., Grenyer, R. & R.W. Scotland. 2014 Phylogenetic trees do not reliably predict feature diversity. Diversity & Distributions. 20: 600-612.
 
Bebber DP, Polaszek, A, Wood JRI, Barker C. & RW Scotland. 2014. Taxonomic capacity and author inflation. New Phytologist. 202: 741-742.
 
Bebber DP, Wood JRI, Barker C. & RW Scotland. 2014.  Author inflation masks global capacity for species discovery in flowering plants. New Phytologist, 210: 700-706.
 
Mark T Waters, Anna M M Tiley, Elena M Kramer, Alan W Meerow, Jane A Langdale and Robert W Scotland.  2013. The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium shares stamen-like identity and is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls. The Plant Journal 74: 615-625.
 
Scotland, R.W. 2013. Some observations on the homology of the daffodil corona, Chapter 12: 297-303 in Early Event in Monocot Evolution ed. P. Wilkin and S.J. Mayo. Cambridge University Press. The Systematics Association.
 
Scotland, R.W. & J.R.I. Wood. 2012 Accelerating the pace of taxonomy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27(8): 415-416.  

Daniel P. Bebber, Mark A. Carine, Gerrit Davidse, David J. Harris,Elspeth M. Haston, Malcolm G. Penn, Steve Cafferty, John R.I. Wood & Robert W. Scotland. 2012. Big hitting collectors make massive and disproportionate contribution to the discovery of plant species. Proc. R. Soc. B. 279: 2269-2274. See discussion and commentary in:
Whitfield, J.A. 2012. Superstars of botany: rare specimens. Nature: 484: 436–438.

Scotland, R.W. 2011. What is parallelism? Evolution and Development 13(2): 214-227

Bebber, D.P. Carine, M.A.Wood, J.R.I. Wortley, A.H. Harris, D.J. Prance, G.T. Davidse, G. Paige, J. Pennington, T.D. Robson, N.K.B. and Scotland, R.W 2010. Herbaria are a major frontier for species discovery. PNAS. 107 (51): 22169-22171  (see commentaries in Nature 2010: 468: 870 and Current Biology 2011 vol 21(1): R6-7).

Huayla, H., Scotland, R.W. & J.R.I.Wood. 2010. Further notes on a rare species of Selaginella (Pteridophyta-Selaginellaceae) from the Cerrados of Eastern Bolivia. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 67: 69-73

Scotland, R.W. 2010. Deep Homology: a view from systematics. BioEssays Vol 32: 438-449.

Wood JRI & Scotland RW. 2009. New and little known species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) from India and South East Asia. Kew Bulletin 64: 3-47.

Wortley, A.H., Harris, D.J. & R.W. Scotland. 2007. On the Taxonomy and Phylogenatic Position of Thomandersia. Systematic Botany 32(2): pp. 415–444.

Bebber, D.P., Marriott, F.H.C., Gaston, K.J., Harris S.A. and R. W. Scotland. 2007. Predicting unknown species numbers using discovery curves. Proc. R. Soc. B. 274: 1651-1658.

Bebber, D.P., Harris, S.A., Gaston, K.J. & R.W. Scotland. 2007. Ethnobotany, plant discovery and the first written records of UK flowering plants. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 16: 103-108

Wood, J.R.I. & R.W. Scotland. 2006. Some notes on the Strobilanthes pensteminoides (Acanthaceae) complex in China, India and South East Asia. Kew Bulletin 61: 5-16.

Wortley, A.H. & R.W. Scotland. 2006. The effect of combining molecular and morphological data in published phylogenetic analyses. Systematic Biology 55(4): 677-685.

Deng Y.F., Wood J.R.I. & R.W. Scotland. 2006. New and Reassessed species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in the Flora of China. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 150: 369-390.

Wortley, A.H. & R.W. Scotland. 2006. Determining the potential utility of datasets for phylogeny reconstruction. Taxon 52(2): 431-442.

Wortley, A.H., Scotland, R.W. & P.J. Rudall. 2005. Floral anatomy of Thomandersia (Lamiales), with particular reference to the nature of the retinaculum and extranuptial nectaries. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 149: 469-482.

Wortley, A.H., Rudall, P.J., Harris, D.J. & Scotland, R.W. 2005. How much data are needed to resolve a difficult phylogeny? Case study in Lamiales. Syst Biol. 54 (5): 697-709.

Olmstead, R.G. & R.W. Scotland. 2005. Molecular & Morphological Datasets. Taxon 54(1): 7-8.

Harrison, C.J., Corley, S.B., Moylan, E.C., Alexander, D.L., Scotland, R.W. & J.A. Langdale. 2005. Independent recruitment of a conserved developmental mechanism during leaf evolution. Nature Vol 434, 509-514.

Scotland, R.W. & M.J. Sanderson. 2004. The significance of few versus many in the tree of life. Science 5658: 643. PDF file available here http://users.ox.ac.uk/~dops0152/publications.htm

Moylan, E.C., J.R. Bennett, M.A. Carine, R.G. Olmstead and R.W. Scotland. 2004 . Phylogenetic relationships among Strobilanthes S.L. (Acanthaceae): evidence from ITS and NR DNA, TRN L-F CP DNA, and morphology. American Journal of Botany 91(5): 724-735.

Carine, M.A., J.A. Alexander & R.W. Scotland. 2004. Species delimitation in the Strobilanthes kunthiana group (Phlebophyllum sensu Bremekamp). Kew Bulletin 59: 1-25.

Moylan, E.C., Rudall, P.J. & R.W. Scotland. 2004. Comparative floral anatomy of Strobilanthinae (Acanthaceae), with particular reference to internal partitioning of the flower. Plant Systematics and Evolution 249: 77-98.

Wortley, A.H. & R.W. Scotland. 2004. Synonymy, sampling and seed plant numbers. Taxon, 53(2): 478-480.

Scotland, R.W. & A.H. Wortley. 2003. How many species of seed plant are there? Taxon 52: 101 -104

Scotland, R.W., C. Hughes, D. Bailey & A. Wortley. 2003. The Big Machine and the Much-Maligned Taxonomist. Systematics and Biodiversity 2: 139 -143

Scotland, R.W., R.G. Olmstead & J.R. Bennett. 2003. Phylogeny reconstruction: the role of morphology. Systematic Biology 52(4): 539 - 548

Wood, J.R. & R.W. Scotland. 2003. Strobilanthes: panicled species from East Asia. Kew Bulletin 58: 679 - 702

Wood, J.R.I., J.R. Bennett & R.W. Scotland. 2003. Notes on Strobilanthes: the Sympagis group. Kew Bulletin 58: 131 - 173

Wood, J.R.I. & R.W. Scotland. 2003. The 2-lipped species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae). Kew Bulletin 58: 83 - 129

Bennett, J.R. & R.W. Scotland. 2003. A revision of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in Java. Kew Bulletin 58: 1 - 82

Moylan, E.C., R.T. Pennington & R.W. Scotland. 2002. Taxonomic account of Hemigraphis Nees (Strobilanthinae-Acanthaceae) from the Philipines. Kew Bulletin 57: 769 - 825

Carine, M.A. & R.W. Scotland. 2002. Classification of Strobilanthinae (Acanthaceae): trying to classify the unclassifiable? Taxon 51: 259 - 279

Wortley, A.H., J.R. Bennett & R.W. Scotland. 2002. Taxonomy and phylogeny reconstruction: two distinct research agendas in systematics. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 59(3): 335 - 349

Fitter, D.W., D.J. Martin, M.J. Copley, R.W. Scotland & J.A. Langdale. 2002. GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species. The Plant Journal 31(6): 713 - 727

Carine, M.A. and R.W. Scotland. 2000. 68 taxa and 32 characters: resolving species relationships using morphological data. In Pollen and spores: morphology and biology (C. Morton, M.M.Harley and S.B.Blackmore, eds).

Edited Book: Published February 2000 Homology and systematics: coding characters for phylogenetic analysis. R.W. Scotland and R.T. Pennington. Taylor and Francis.

Carine, M.A., P. Jayasekera & R.W. Scotland. 2000. A new species of Strobilanthes Blume (Acanthaceae) from Sri Lanka. Kew Bulletin 55: 971 - 976

Scotland, R.W. and M.A. Carine. 2000. Classification or phylogeny estimates? Cladistics 16: 411 - 419

Scotland, R.W. & K. Vollesen. 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin 55: 513 - 589

Moylan, E.C. & R.W. Scotland. 2000. Hemigraphis neocaledonica Heine from New Caledonia is transferred to Brunoniella Bremek. (Acanthaceae). Kew Bulletin 55: 477 - 481

Scotland, R.W. 2000. Are angiosperms firmly rooted? Taxon 49: 529 - 531

Scotland, R.W. 2000. Taxic homology and three-taxon statement analysis. Systematic Biology 49(3): 480 - 500

Scotland, R.W. 2000. Homology, coding and three-taxon statement analysis. In Homology and systematics: coding characters for phylogenetic analysis (R.W. Scotland and R.T. Pennington). Taylor and Francis.

Carine, M.A. and R.W. Scotland. 2000. Taxonomy and biology of Stenosiphonium Nees (Acanthaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 101 - 128

Steane, D.A., R.W. Scotland, D.J. Mabberley and R.G. Olmstead. 1999. Molecular Systematics of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae). ITS sequences and total evidence. American Journal of Botany 86(1): 98 - 107

Carine, M.A. and R.W. Scotland. 1999. Taxic and transformational homology: different ways of seeing. Cladistics 15: 121 - 129

Carine, M.A. and R.W. Scotland. 1998. Pollen morphology of Strobilanthes Blume (Acanthaceae) from Southern India and Sri Lanka. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 103: 143 - 165

Scotland, R.W. 1998. One new and one re-discovered species of Strobilanthes Blume (Acanthaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 203 - 210

Forey, P.L., C.J. Humphries, I.L. Kitching, R.W. Scotland, D.J. Siebert and D.M. Williams. 1998. Cladistics: A practical course in systematics. KUPress, Seoul. Korea. [Published in Korean]

Scotland, R.W. 1997. Parsimony neither maximizes congruence nor minimizes incongruence nor homoplasy. Taxon 46: 743 - 746

Steane, D.A., R.W. Scotland, D.J. Mabberley, S.J. Wagstaff, P.A. Reeves and R.G. Olmstead. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA. Systematic Botany 22: 229 - 243

Hawkins, J.A., C.E. Hughes and R.W. Scotland. 1997. Primary homology assessment, characters and character states. Cladistics 13: 275 - 283

Scotland, R.W., J.A. Sweere, P.A. Reeves and R.G. Olmstead. 1995. Higher-level systematics of Acanthaceae determined by chloroplast DNA Sequences. American Journal of Botany 82: 266 - 275

Full Publication List (while at this department)

Hay, A.S, Pieper, B, Cooke, E, Mandakova, T, Cartolano, M, Tattersall, A.D, Ioio, R.D, McGowan, S.J, Barkoulas, M, Galinha, C, Rast, M.I, Hofhuis, H, Then, C, Plieske, J, Ganal, M, Mott, R, Martinez-Garcia, J.F, Carine, M.A, Scotland, R.W, Gan, X, Filatov, D.A, Lysak, M.A, Tsiantis, M. (2014) Cardamine hirsuta: A versatile genetic system for comparative studies Plant Journal. 78 (1): pp 1-15.
doi:10.1111/tpj.12447.

Kelly, S, Grenyer, R, Scotland, R.W. (2014) Phylogenetic trees do not reliably predict feature diversity Diversity and Distributions..
doi:10.1111/ddi.12188.

Bebber, D.P, Wood, J.R.I, Barker, C, Scotland, R.W. (2013) Author inflation masks global capacity for species discovery in flowering plants New Phytologist..
doi:10.1111/nph.12522.

Waters, M.T, Tiley, A.M.M, Kramer, E.M, Meerow, A.W, Langdale, J.A, Scotland, R.W. (2013) The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium shares stamen-like identity and is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls Plant Journal..
doi:10.1111/tpj.12150.

Bebber, D.P, Carine, M.A, Davidse, G, Harris, D.J, Haston, E.M, Penn, M.G, Cafferty, S, Wood, J.R.I, Scotland, R.W. (2012) Big hitting collectors make massive and disproportionate contribution to the discovery of plant species Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1736): pp 2269-2274.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.2439.

Scotland, R.W, Wood, J.R.I. (2012) Accelerating the pace of taxonomy Trends in Ecology and Evolution..
doi:10.1016/j.tree.2012.04.013.

Wood, J.R.I, Williams, B.P, Scotland, R.W. (2012) Diceratotheca, a new genus of Acanthaceae from Thailand Kew Bulletin. pp 1-9.
doi:10.1007/s12225-012-9404-2.

Scotland, R.W. (2011) What is parallelism? Evolution and Development. 13 (2): pp 214-227.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2011.00471.x.

Bebber, D.P, Carine, M.A, Wood, J.R.I, Wortley, A.H, Harris, D.J, Prance, G.T, Davidse, G, Paige, J, Pennington, T.D, Robson, N.K.B, Scotland, R.W. (2010) Herbaria are a major frontier for species discovery Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (51): pp 22169-22171.
doi:10.1073/pnas.1011841108.

Huaylla, H, Scotland, R.W, Wood, J.R.I. (2010) Further notes on a rare species of selaginella (pteridophyta - Selaginellaceae) from the cerrados of eastern bolivia Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 67 (1): pp 69-73.
doi:10.1017/S0960428609990205.

Scotland, R.W. (2010) Deep homology: A view from systematics BioEssays. 32 (5): pp 438-449.
doi:10.1002/bies.200900175.

Wood, J.R.I, Scotland, R.W. (2009) New and little-known species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) from India and South East Asia Kew Bulletin. 64 (1): pp 3-47.
doi:10.1007/s12225-009-9098-2.

Bennett, J.R, Wood, J.R.I, Scotland, R.W. (2008) Uncorrelated variation in widespread species: Species delimitation in Strobilanthes echinata Nees (Acanthaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 156 (1): pp 131-141.
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00756.x.

Bebber, D.P, Marriott, F.H.C, Gaston, K.J, Harris, S.A, Scotland, R.W. (2007) Predicting unknown species numbers using discovery curves Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 274 (1618): pp 1651-1658.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0464.

Bebber, D.P, Harris, S.A, Gaston, K.J, Scotland, R.W. (2007) Ethnobotany and the first printed records of British flowering plants Global Ecology and Biogeography. 16 (1): pp 103-108.
doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2006.00266.x.

Wortley, A.H, Harris, D.J, Scotland, R.W. (2007) On the taxonomy and phylogenetic position of Thomandersia Systematic Botany. 32 (2): pp 415-415.
doi:10.1600/036364407781179716.

Deng, Y.F, Wood, J.R.I, Scotland, R.W. (2006) New and reassessed species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in the flora of China Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 150 (3): pp 369-390.
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00473.x.

Wood, J.R.I, Scotland, R.W. (2006) Some notes on the Strobilanthes pentstemonoides (Acanthaceae) complex in China, India and South East Asia Kew Bulletin. 61 (1): pp 5-16

Wortley, A.H, Scotland, R.W. (2006) Determining the potential utility of datasets for phylogeny reconstruction Taxon. 55 (2): pp 431-442

Wortley, A.H, Scotland, R.W. (2006) The effect of combining molecular and morphological data in published phylogenetic analyses. Systematic biology. 55 (4): pp 677-685

Harrison, C.J, Coriey, S.B, Moylan, E.C, Alexander, D.L, Scotland, R.W, Langdale, J.A. (2005) Independent recruitment of a conserved developmental mechanism during leaf evolution Nature. 434 (7032): pp 509-514.
doi:10.1038/nature03410.

Olmstead, R.G, Scotland, R.W. (2005) Molecular and morphological datasets [2] Taxon. 54 (1): pp 7-8

Wortley, A.H, Rudall, P.J, Harris, D.J, Scotland, R.W. (2005) How much data are needed to resolve a difficult phylogeny?: case study in Lamiales. Systematic biology.. 54 (5): pp 697-709

Wortley, A.H, Scotland, R.W, Rudall, P.J. (2005) Floral anatomy of Thomandersia (Lamiales), with particular reference to the nature of the retinaculum and extranuptial nectaries Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 149 (4): pp 469-482.
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2005.00507.x.

Carine, M.A, Alexander, J.M, Scotland, R.W. (2004) A revision of the Strobilanthes kunthiana-group (Phlebophyllum sensu Bremekamp) (Acanthaceae) Kew Bulletin. 59 (1): pp 1-25

Moylan, E.C, Rudall, P.J, Scotland, R.W. (2004) Comparative floral anatomy of Strobilanthinae (Acanthaceae), with particular reference to internal partitioning of the flower Plant Systematics and Evolution. 249: pp 77-98.
doi:10.1007/s00606-004-0197-0.

Moylan, E.C, Bennett, J.R, Carine, M.A, Olmstead, R.G, Scotland, R.W. (2004) Phylogenetic relationships among Strobilanthes S.L. (acanthaceae): Evidence from its NRDNA, TRNL-F CPDNA, and morphology American Journal of Botany. 91 (5): pp 724-735

Scotland, R.W, Sanderson, M.J. (2004) The Significance of Few Versus Many in the Tree of Life Science. 303 (5658): pp 643

Wortley, A.H, Scotland, R.W. (2004) Synonymy, sampling and seed plant numbers Taxon. 53 (2): pp 478-480

Bennett, J.R, Scotland, R.W. (2003) A revision of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in Java Kew Bulletin. 58 (1): pp 1-82

Scotland, R.W, Wortley, A.H. (2003) How many species of seed plants are there? Taxon. 52 (1): pp 101-104

Scotland, R.W, Olmstead, R.G, Bennett, J.R. (2003) Phylogeny reconstruction: The role of morphology Systematic Biology. 52 (4): pp 539-548.
doi:10.1080/10635150309309.

Wood, J.R.I, Bennett, J.R, Scotland, R.W. (2003) Notes on Strobilanthes: The Sympagis group Kew Bulletin. 58 (1): pp 131-173

Wood, J.R.I, Scotland, R.W. (2003) The 2-lipped species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) Kew Bulletin. 58 (1): pp 83-129

Wood, J.R.I, Scotland, R.W. (2003) Strobilanthes: Panicled species from East Asia Kew Bulletin. 58 (3): pp 679-702

Carine, M.A, Scotland, R.W. (2002) Classification of Strobilanthinae (Acanthaceae): Trying to classify the unclassifiable? Taxon. 51 (2): pp 259-279

Fitter, D.W, Martin, D.J, Copley, M.J, Scotland, R.W, Langdale, J.A. (2002) GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species Plant Journal. 31 (6): pp 713-727.
doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01390.x.

Moylan, E.C, Pennington, R.T, Scotland, R.W. (2002) Taxonomic account of Hemigraphis Nees (Strobilanthinae-Acanthaceae) from the Philippines Kew Bulletin. 57 (4): pp 769-825

Wortley, A.H, Bennett, J.R, Scotland, R.W. (2002) Taxonomy and phylogeny reconstruction: Two distinct research agendas in systematics Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 59 (3): pp 335-349.
doi:10.10M/S0960428602000203.

Carine, M.A, Scotland, R.W. (2000) The taxonomy and biology of Stenosiphonium Nees (Acanthaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 133 (1): pp 101-128.
doi:10.1006/bojl.2000.0329.

Moylan, E.C, Scotland, R.W. (2000) Hemigraphis neocaledonica Heine from New Caledonia is transferred to Brunoniella Bremek. (Acanthaceae) Kew Bulletin. 55 (2): pp 477-481

Scotland, R.W. (2000) Are angiosperms firmly rooted? Taxon. 49 (3): pp 529

Scotland, R.W, Vollesen, K. (2000) Classification of Acanthaceae Kew Bulletin. 55 (3): pp 513-589

Scotland, R.W, Carine, M.A. (2000) Classification or phylogenetic estimates? Cladistics. 16 (4): pp 411-419.
doi:10.1006/clad.2000.0139.

Scotland, R.W. (2000) Taxic homology and three-taxon statement analysis Systematic Biology. 49 (3): pp 480-500

Carine, M.A, Scotland, R.W. (1999) Taxic and transformational homology: Different ways of seeing Cladistics. 15 (2): pp 121-129

Steane, D.A, Scotland, R.W, Mabberley, D.J, Olmstead, R.G. (1999) Molecular systematics of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): Its sequences and total evidence American Journal of Botany. 86 (1): pp 98-107

Carine, M.A, Scotland, R.W. (1998) Pollen morphology of Strobilanthes blume (acanthaceae) from southern India and Sri lanka Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 103: pp 143-165.
doi:10.1016/S0034-6667(98)00030-X.

Scotland, R.W. (1998) One new and one rediscovered species of Strobilanthes Blume (Acanthaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 128 (2): pp 203-210.
doi:10.1006/bojl.1998.0196.

Hawkins, J.A, Hughes, C.E, Scotland, R.W. (1997) Primary Homology Assessment, Characters and Character States Cladistics. 13 (3): pp 275-283

Scotland, R.W. (1997) Parsimony neither maximizes congruence nor minimizes incongruence or homoplasy Taxon. 46 (4): pp 743-746

Steane, D.A, Scotland, R.W, Mabberley, D.J, Wagstaff, S.J, Reeves, P.A, Olmstead, R.G. (1997) Phylogenetic relationships of Clerodendrum s.l. (Lamiaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA Systematic Botany. 22 (2): pp 229-243

Williams, D.M, Scotland, R.W, Humphries, C.J, Siebert, D.J. (1996) Confusion in philosophy: A comment on Williams (1992) Synthese. 108 (1): pp 127-136

Scotland, R.W, Sweere, J.A, Reeves, P.A, Olmstead, R.G. (1995) Higher-level systematics of Acanthaceae determined by chloroplast DNA sequences American Journal of Botany. 82 (2): pp 266-275

Scotland, R.W, Endress, P.K, Lawrence, T.J. (1994) Corolla ontogeny and aestivation in the Acanthaceae Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 114 (1): pp 49-65.
doi:10.1006/bojl.1994.1004.

Scotland, R.W. (1993) Pollen morphology of Contortae (Acanthaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 111 (4): pp 471-504.
doi:10.1006/bojl.1993.1032.

Scotland, R.W. (1992) Pollen morphology of Andrographideae (Acanthaceae) Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology. 72: pp 229-243

Scotland, R.W. (1992) Systematics, similarity and Acanthaceae pollen morphology Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 109 (4): pp 529-541

Collaborators

Collaborations with Richard Olmstead (Washington), Paula Rudall (Kew Gardens), David Harris (Edinburgh Botanic Garden), Alex Wortley (Edinburgh Botanic Garden) Mike Sanderson (UCDavis), Dan Bebber (Earthwatch), Mark Carine (NHM), Gerrit Davidse (Missouro Bot Gard).